BIOL 221
Concepts of Botany
(Spring 2018)

Welcome to the course website for the Spring 2018 offering of Concepts of Botany. Below you will find materials in support of the lecture and lab. These will be posted periodically on an as-need basis.



Lecture, Hardy Lab



Lab Support

Last Lab Assignment for Tuesday and Wendnesday Lab: announcement

Angiosperms Lab: Pictures of Flowers Studied, Answers to all labeling, floral formulas and fruits types

Absorbance Spectra of 4 Major Leaf Pigments

Spreadsheet for Absorbance Spectra of your Unknowns


Lecture Exam 1 Support

Sample Exam Questions from Years Past (key). Exam 1 grades (sorted by last 4 digits of MU number)

Topic 01 - Introduction to Botany (outline; PwrPt)
Topic 02 - The Primary Plant Body (outline)
Topic 03 - The Secondary Plant Body (outline)

Special Topic A: The Coconut Palm (outline; PwrPt)

Lecture Exam 2 Support

Sample Exam Questions from 2013 (key).

Sample Exam Questions from 2014 regarding Plant Modifications (key). Exam 2 grades (sorted by last 4 digits of MU number)

Note that Aloe and Plants in Medicine were not topics among these sample exam questions from 2013.

Topic 04 - Plant Modifications (outline)
Topic 05 - Water & Nutrition (outline)
Topic 06 - Hormones & Tropisms (outline)
Topic 07 - Photosynthesis (outline)
Topic 08 - Ethnobotany of Secondary Metabolism (outline; PwrPt)

Special Topic B: Aloe (outline; PwrPt)
Special Topic C: The Use of Plants in Medicine (outline)




Lecture Exam 3 Support

Sample Exam Questions from Years Past (key). The final exam (exam 3) will cover Topics 09-14 for 50 of the 75 questions. Dr. Steucek's lecture on Agriculture will not be covered by the final exam. 25 of the 75 questions will be from material in Topics 01-08 including Special topics A, B, and C.

Topic 09 - Introduction to the Plant Kingdom (outline, no PwrPt available)
Topic 10 - Gymnosperms (outline, PwrPt)
Topic 11 - Angiosperms (outline, no PwrPt available)
Topic 12 - Bryophytes & Pteridophytes (outline, PwrPt)
Topic 13 - Pollination (outline, PwrPt)
Topic 14 - Introduction to Algae (outline, PwrPt)




Required lab manual: Guide to Lab Exercises in Concepts of Botany, Spring 2018 Edition by C. Hardy and R. Wagner (editors). Must purchase new editon. Older versions prohibited.

Required text: Selected Chapters for Concepts of Botany (BIOL 221) from Biology: Concepts and Investigations , 4th Edition by M. Hoefnagels; custom looseleaf edition available only from the campus text book room (ISBN13: 9781307185621).

This custom edition includes only chapters with botany content, as follows:
Chapter 3 (Cells)
Chapter 5 (Photosynthesis)
Chapter 18 (Protists)
Chapter 19 (Plants)
Chapter 22 (Plant Form and Function)
Chapter 23 (Plant Nutrition and Transport)
Chapter 24 (Reproduction and Development of Flowering Plants)
Chapter 38 (Communities & Ecosystems)
Chapter 39 (Biomes)

Alternative forms for this content would be:

  • The entire bound-book, hardcover (ISBN13: 9780078024207)
  • The entire ebook (ISBN13: 9781259869587, 6-month access).

Recommended but not required: A Photographic Atlas for the Botany Laboratory, 7th edition by Rushforth et al.